Play & Pragmatics Milestones


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Play & Pragmatics Milestone Chart


Play

(1 - 1 1/2 years)

  • Solitary or onlooker play; self play
  • Begins running-stiff and awkward
  • Scribbles spontaneously with crayon
  • Puts objects in and out of containers
  • Can figure out ways of overcoming some obstacles (opening doors, reaching high)
  • Imitates many things (sweeping, combing hair-self use)
  • Pulls toys; carries or hugs doll, teddy bear
  • Very rapid shifts in attention

Pragmatics

(1 - 1 1/2 years)

  • Brings objects to show an adult
  • Requests objects by pointing and vocalizing or possibly using a word approximation
  • Solicits another’s attention vocally, physically, and/or possibly with gestures
  • Gesturally requests action/assistance (many may give back wind-up toy for activation)
  • Says “bye” and possibly a few other conventional ritual words such as “hi,” “thank you,” and “please”
  • Protests by saying “no” shaking head, moving away, frowning, or pushing objects away
  • Comments on  objects/actions by directing listeners’ attention to it with a point and/or vocalization or word approximation
  • Answers simple "wh" questions with a vocal response (may be unintelligible)
  • Acknowledges speech of another person by giving eye contact, vocally responding or repeating a word said
  • Teases, warns, scolds using gesture plus a vocalization or a word approximation

Play

(1 1/2 - 2 years)

  • Parallel play – plays near others but not with them
  • Talks to self as he/she plays
  • Little social give and take – little interest in what others say and do, but hugs, pushes, pulls, snatches, grabs, defends rights by pulling hair and kicking
  • Does not ask for help
  • Transports blocks on a truck rather than just building
  • Relates to an object or another person- washes, feeds, combs doll in addition to self
  • Likes to play with flexible material such as clay-pots, pinches, and fingers
  • Strings beads
  • Less rapid shifts in attention

Pragmatics

(1 1/2 - 2 years)

  • Uses gestures with words to get needs met
  • Says “what’s that?” to elicit attention
  • Begins using single words and some two-word phrases to command (move), indicate possession (mine), express problems ("Ouch")
  • Vocal with verbal turn-taking

Play

(2 - 3 years)

  • Parallel play predominates
  • Arranges doll furniture into meaningful groups and uses figures to act out simple themes from own experiences
  • Aligns three or more cubes to make a train; pushes train
  • Builds a tower of six or seven blocks
  • Imitates drawing of a vertical line
  • Sequences related actions such as preparing food for doll, feeding it, wiping mouth
  • Begins pretend play with more than

Pragmatics

(2 - 3 years)

  • Begins using and displaying basic emotions: happy, sad, mad
  • Enjoys being next to children of the same age

Play

(3 - 3 1/2 years)

  • Builds a bridge from a model
  • Cooperative play begins
  • Organizes doll furniture accurately and begins to use in genuinely imaginative ways
  • Draws two or more strokes for a cross-on imitation
  • Begins to share
  • Reenacts experienced events such as birthday parties, baking cookies
  • Uses one object to represent another (stick = phone or fence)
  • Pretends to play different characters

Pragmatics

(3 - 3 1/2 years)

  • Engages in longer dialogues
  • Assumes the role of another person in play
  • Uses more filters to acknowledge partner’s message (uh-huh, yea, ok)
  • Begins code switching (using simpler language) when talking to very young children
  • Uses more elliptical resources
  • Requests permission
  • Begins using language for fantasies, jokes, teasing
  • Makes conversational repairs when listener has not understood
  • Talks about interests and feelings for past and future
  • Corrects others
  • Primitive narratives emerge: events follow from central core/ use of interference in stories

Play

(3 1/2 - 4 years)

  • Increase in dramatization of play
  • Complicated ideas, but unable to carry out in detail; no carryover from day to day
  • Prefers to play in a group of two or three children; chooses companion of own sex
  • Suggests turns, but often bossy in directing others
  • Often silly in play and may do things wrong purposefully
  • Puts toys away
  • Likes to dress up
  • Draws human with two parts; adds three parts to incomplete human
  • Builds structures/buildings with blocks
  • Assumes the role of another person in play (becomes a teacher, animal, parent)

Pragmatics

(3 1/2 - 4 years)

  • Listens attentively to conversational partner of age appropriate material
  • Makes relevant comments on familiar stories or events
  • Enjoys riddles, jokes and funny stories with “guessing”

Play

(4 - 5 years)

  • Likes cutting out and pasting
  • Likes working projects - may carry over from day-to-day
  • Definite interests in finishing what he/she starts
  • Plays in groups of two to five; friendships become stronger
  • Spurred on by rivalry in activity, competition
  • Interested in going on excursions
  • Draws unmistakable human with body, arms, legs, feet, nose, and eyes
  • Adds seven parts to incomplete human
  • Copies a triangle
  • Watches life simulation programs on TV; gains information from verbal contents

Pragmatics

(4 - 5 years)

  • Changes tone of voice to adapt to listeners perspective
  • Shows pride for accomplishments
  • Boasts, exaggerates and blends truths
  • Changes moods rapidly and unpredictably
  • Relies on verbal rather than physical engagement
  • Uses indirect requests
  • Uses twice as many effective utterances as three-year old to discuss emotions and feelings
  • Narrative development characterized by unfocused chains of elaborate story telling

Play

(5 - 6 years)

  • Copies drawing of diamond
  • Copies drawing of rectangle with diagonals in middle
  • Draws human with neck, fingers, clothes, and two dimensional legs
  • Adds nine parts to incomplete human
  • May start collections
  • Able to play games by rules
  • Builds things with blocks
  • Plans many sequences of pretend events; uses props and language to develop a theme (going on a trip to outer space)
  • Suggests imaginative and elaborate play ideas
  • Plays cooperatively

Play

(5 - 6 years)

  • Copies drawing of diamond
  • Copies drawing of rectangle with diagonals in middle
  • Draws human with neck, fingers, clothes, and two dimensional legs
  • Adds nine parts to incomplete human
  • May start collections
  • Able to play games by rules
  • Builds things with blocks
  • Plans many sequences of pretend events; uses props and language to develop a theme (going on a trip to outer space)
  • Suggests imaginative and elaborate play ideas
  • Plays cooperatively